3.5.1 Choices about multifunctional landscapes needed
Agricultural production systems and associated landscapes can be focused on one function or be multifunctional. Both systems have significant scope for increased and more sustainable production, but require improved land-use planning for optimal use.
Compared to the Trend scenario, the Global Technology pathway is associated with a larger share of mono-functional agricultural areas. These are poor in biodiversity; yet, lead to higher levels of biodiversity in regions with large natural areas. The reason is that this scenario benefits from land-sparing effects from intensive and concentrated production systems. In contrast, the Decentralised Solutions pathway is associated with higher biodiversity in today's large-scale agricultural areas, because these areas would be subject to more ecologically oriented agriculture, interwoven with nature (i.e. land sharing).
Obviously, in reality, the choice between these approaches could be made at different levels of decision-making. Proper land-use planning would be required to optimally reap the benefits of each of these approaches.