4.0 Challenges for energy and climate
Ensuring access to modern energy sources for all, while limiting global climate change and air pollution will require both short- and long-term actions.
Improving access to modern energy can be achieved by using financial instruments to lower the cost of modern fuels and stoves, distribution programmes for improved biomass stoves, and ambitious electrification programmes, all targeted at the poorest households. In order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions it is necessary to improve energy efficiency and use more low or zero greenhouse gas emitting technologies. Standards and financial tools (e.g. taxation) can be effective policy instruments to unlock existing potential. Further electrification in the transport and household sectors could ensure more flexibility in reducing emissions. By 2050, around 60% of all energy would need to come from non-CO2 emitting energy sources. Reducing non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions is also part of any effective strategy.
To implement these actions, five fundamental short-term policy priorities can be defined: